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Effect of direct injection of shark DNA into skeletalmuscles on the productive performance characteristicsof red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fed at differentdietary regimes
Samy Yehya El-Zaeem1,3*, Nader Ezzat El-Tawil2 and Talaat Nagy Amer2
 
African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 7(16), pp. 2456-2462, 26 April, 2012
 
1DNA Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Sciences, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh
 
The present work aims to study the effect of direct injection of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) DNA intoskeletal muscles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings fed at different dietary regimes (threeprotein levels; 18, 22 and 26% each with two metabolizable energy levels; 244 and 260 kcal/100 g diet)on the productive performance. The results showed that growth performance, body composition andfeed utilization of red tilapia injected with shark DNA had significant superiority (P≤0.05) compared withnon-injected fish. Red tilapia fed 22% protein diet had significant improving (P≤0.05) most of theproductive performance traits. Moreover, final body weight, weight gain, percent body weight increases,feed intake and protein retention percentage of red tilapia fed on diet containing 244 kcal/100 g, weresignificantly higher (P≤0.05) than those of fish fed on diet containing 260 kcal/100 g. These datasuggests that dietary protein can be spared down to 22% protein by direct injection of shark DNA intoskeletal muscles of fish. Thus, feed costs can be reduced by a further reduction in dietary protein.Therefore, the result of the present work indicates a possible easy and rapid way for improving fishcharacteristics.
 
Evaluation of the productive performance
characteristics of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) injected
with shark DNA into skeletal muscles and maintained
diets containing different levels of probiotic and amino
yeast
Samy Yehya El-Zaeem1,3*, Talaat Nagy Amer2 and Nader Ezzat El-Tawil2
 
1DNA Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Sciences, P. O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451,
Saudi Arabia.
2Experimental Station for Aquaculture Research (ESAR), Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Agriculture
Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt.
3Animal and Fish Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba-Bacha), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
 
This work aimed to study the effect of direct injection of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) DNA into skeletal muscles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fed at different additive levels (two probiotic levels; 0.3 and 0.5%, two amino yeast levels; 0.5 and 1.0% and a mixed of 0.3% probiotic and 0.5% amino yeast), on the productive performance. The results show that red tilapia injected with DNA had significant (P≤0.05) superiority of growth performance and feed utilization; besides the body composition was improved. In addition, the different levels of probiotic and amino yeast were more effective in stimulating most of the productive performance traits compared to the control group and the mixed of probiotic and amino yeast. The result indicates a possible easy and rapid way for improving red tilapia characteristics.
 
Extraordinary mullet growth through direct injection of foreign DNA
Samy Yehya El-Zaeem 1, 2
 
1DNA Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Sciences, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
2Animal and Fish Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba-Bacha), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

   The present study aims to produce a genetically modified grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, with accelerated growth through direct injection of foreign DNA isolated from the liver of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) or African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) into muscles of fingerlings fish at the dose of 40 μg/fish. The results show a significant (P≤0.05) improvement in most of the growth performance and body composition parameters of genetically modified grey mullet fingerlings injected with shark DNA compared to both genetically modified grey mullet injected with catfish DNA and the control fish, while the results of feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) indicate that fish injected with shark DNA or catfish DNA had significant (P≤0.05) superiority compared to their control. The results of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting show highly genetic polymorphic percentage among grey mullet that received foreign DNA and their control using different random primers. This may be due to some fragments of foreign DNA randomly integrated into grey mullet genome. Therefore, the result indicates a possible easy and rapid way for improving fish characteristics.
 
Toxicity bioassay and effects of sub-lethal exposure of malathion on biochemical composition and haematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus
 
Zubair Ahmad
Department of Zoology, College of Science, P. O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Email: zahmed@ksu.edu.sa or zubair.ahmad.ah@gmail.com.
Accepted 23 March, 2012
 
Clarias gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of malathion to determine the 96 h LC50 value and its sub-lethal effects on haematological parameters and biochemical composition were also investigated. The 96 h LC50 value concluded was 8.22 mg/L. Specimens of C. gariepinus were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L) of pesticide for 4 weeks, which revealed that the pesticide had an adverse effects on various blood parameters. Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Ht) values decreased after the exposure of malathion. Plasma glucose level was elevated as plasma protein decreased. Liver and muscle glycogen also decreased in the fish exposed to Malathion. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the fish exposed to malathion. Magnesium and calcium ions were also affected, but the effects were insignificant.
 
 Effect of direct injection of shark DNA into skeletal muscles on the productive performance characteristics of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fed at different dietary regimes
 
Samy Yehya El-Zaeem1,3*, Nader Ezzat El-Tawil2 and Talaat Nagy Amer2
1DNA Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Sciences, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
2Experimental Station for Aquaculture Research (ESAR), Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Agriculture Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt.
3Animal and Fish Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba-Bacha), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
 
The present work aims to study the effect of direct injection of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) DNA into skeletal muscles of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings fed at different dietary regimes (three protein levels; 18, 22 and 26% each with two metabolizable energy levels; 244 and 260 kcal/100 g diet) on the productive performance. The results showed that growth performance, body composition and feed utilization of red tilapia injected with shark DNA had significant superiority (P≤0.05) compared with non-injected fish. Red tilapia fed 22% protein diet had significant improving (P≤0.05) most of the productive performance traits. Moreover, final body weight, weight gain, percent body weight increases, feed intake and protein retention percentage of red tilapia fed on diet containing 244 kcal/100 g, were significantly higher (P≤0.05) than those of fish fed on diet containing 260 kcal/100 g. These data suggests that dietary protein can be spared down to 22% protein by direct injection of shark DNA into skeletal muscles of fish. Thus, feed costs can be reduced by a further reduction in dietary protein. Therefore, the result of the present work indicates a possible easy and rapid way for improving fish characteristics.
 
Flesh quality differentiation of wild and cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations
Samy Yehya El-Zaeem1,4, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed2,3,Mohamed El-Sayed Salama4,Walid N. Abd El-Kader4
African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(17), pp. 4086-4089, 28 February, 2012
1DNA Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Sciences, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
ABSTRACT
Variation in chemical composition and carcass traits among different wild and cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations were analyzed to study and compare the differences among different wild (Manzalah lake, Nile river and Edku lake) and cultured Nile tilapia populations.Data of body composition of different Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) populations showed that, the highest mean value of moisture content (80.32±0.39%) was recorded by Cultured population and differ significantly (P≤0.05)from those of other populations studied. The highest mean value of protein content (58.14±0.51%) was recorded by Cultured population but did not differ significantly (P≤0.05)from that of River Nile population.Lipids content showed lower mean (21.74±0.06%) by River Nile population but did not differ significantly (P≤0.05)from that of Cultured population. The results of carcass traits showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all parameters among different Nile tilapia populations studied. The evaluation of flesh quality of different wild and cultured populations of Nile tilapia studied can result in a genotype suitable for aquaculture.
 
Identification of different selected genotypes of salinity resistance of each of full-sib Nile tilapia, Blue tilapia and their diallel interspecific hybridization using random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting
Samy Yehya El-Zaeem1,2
1DNA Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Sciences, P.O. Box 2455, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
2Animal and Fish Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba-Bacha), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. E-mail: selzaeem@yahoo.com, selzaeem@ksu.edu.sa or samy.elzaeem@alex-agrsaba.edu.eg.
 
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to identify the three selected genotypes which were defined as; low, medium and high salinity resistance of each of full-sib Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) and their diallel interspecific hybridization. Six random primers were used to assay polymorphisms among the different selected genotypes within each species or hybrid. The results reveal that high genetic polymorphic percentages were detected among low, medium and high salinity resistance of different selected genotypes within each species or hybrid using different random primers. The results suggest also that RAPD technique can be successfully used as a rapid and easy way for identification of the different selected genotypes of salinity resistance fish, which considers a great potential for the development and implementation of genetic improvement programs.
 
Phylogenetic differentiation of wild and cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations based on phenotype and genotype analysis
Samy Yehya El-Zaeem 1,4*, Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed 2,3, Mohamed El-Sayed Salama4 and Walid N. Abd El-Kader4
 
Variation in phenotype based on morphometric character indices and meristic counts and in genotype based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting among different wild and cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations were analyzed phylogenetically to study and compare the amount of differences in phenotype with the amount of differences in genotype and to help assess the degree of phenotypic plasticity shown by these populations. The results revealed that there were significant differences (P≤0.05) in most of morphometric character indices and meristic counts among different wild and cultured Nile tilapia populations tested. Data of genetic similarity coefficients among four populations of Nile tilapia based on RAPD data of all primers used, showed the highest interpopulation genetic similarity (64%) exhibited between Manzalah and Edku Lake populations, while the lowest genetic similarity (37%) was recorded between Manzalah Lake and cultured populations. The hierarchical cluster analysis based on each phenotype and genotype analysis grouped the four populations into two major category groups: Edku Lake, Manzalah Lake and Nile river populations group and cultured population group. Within these major grouping, wild Nile tilapia were grouped close together. Also, Edku Lake population appears to be more similar to that of Manzalah Lake population than that of Nile river population. Moreover, the great concordance between each phylogeny based on phenotype and genotype analysis revealed that the phenotypic plasticity may not be found in the different Nile tilapia populations tested and the relationship among them considered as intraspecific.
 
Simultaneous determination of benserazide and levodopa in pharmaceutical tablet, human serum and urine sample by differential pulse voltammetry using modified glassy carbon electrode
Mu. Naushad*1, V.K. Gupta*2, S.M. Wabaidur*1, Zeid A. Alothman1
 
1Advanced Materials Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia
 
2Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee-247667, India
 
 E-mail: vinodfcy@gmail.com; tarabai22@gmail.com
Abstract
A simple and highly sensitive method was investigated for the simultaneous determination of benserazide (BZ) and levodopa (LD) using Poly(4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol) modified glassy carbon electrodes. Both benserazide and levodopa were accumulated at the surface of the modified glassy carbon electrode (under open circuit condition for 30 s). In differential pulse voltammetry technique both BZ and LD were given sensitive oxidation peaks at 180 mV and 270 mV, respectively. Under the optimized experimental conditions (such as supporting electrolyte pH, accumulation time and scanning rate) BZ and LD were shown linear response over the range of 0.01–0.20 mM (r2 = 0.991) and 0.025–0.4 mM (r2 = 0.993), respectively. The lower detection limits were found to be 0.002 mM for BZ and 0.006 mM for LD. The commonly encountered excipientsused in the pharmaceutical formulationshowed no interference with the selective determination of BZ and LD. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility (1.3% (BZ) and 2.3% (LD)), repeatability (1.9%) and high recovery in pharmaceutical preparation (1.7% (BZ) and 2.7% (LD)), human serum (1.7% (BZ) and 1.9% (LD)) and urine samples (1.7% (BZ) and 1.8% (LD)).
 
Prenatal and perinatal acrylamide disrupts the development of cerebrum and medulla oblongata in albino rats
Allam A.1*, Abdul-Hamid M.2, Zohair K3,4, Ajarem J1, Allam G2,5and El-Ghareeb A.6
 
1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-suef University, Egypt.
3Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
4Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.
5Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
6Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.
 
Abstract
Acrylamide is known to cause neurotoxicity in experimental animals and humans. The literature on its neurotoxic effect in adult animals is huge, but the effect of acrylamide on the embryonic and postnatal development is relatively less understood. The present study examined its effects on the development of oxidative stress of cerebrum and medulla oblongata in albino rats. Acrylamide was orally administered to non-anesthetized pregnant females by gastric intubation 10 mg/kg/day. The animals were divided into 3 groups as follows: group A - newborn from control animals, group B – newborns from mothers treated with acrylamide from day 7 (D7) of gestation till birth (prenatal intoxicated group), group C - newborns from mothers treated with acrylamide from D7 of gestation till D28 after birth (perinatally intoxicated group). Acrylamide administered either prenatally or perinatally was shown to induce significant increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and oxidative stress (significant reductions in glutathione (GSH), total thiols, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase activities) in the developing cerebrum and medulla oblongata. The results of this study showed that prenatal and perinatal acrylamide or its metabolites disrupts the biochemical machinery, cause oxidative stress and induce structural changes in the developing rat cerebrum and medulla oblongata.
 
Key words: Acrylamide, postnatal development, cerebrum, medulla oblongata, oxidative stress.
 
Microbial Loop Populations: Their Abundances andTrophodynamics in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea
 
Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 12: 565-573 (2012)
 
Abstract
 Population densities of filter feeding ciliates in the water of the three marine protectorates of Ras Mohammed, Nabq and Abu Galoum in the Gulf of Aqaba at the northern Red Sea, were estimated during the period from November 2006 to November 2007. Also, autotrophic nanoflagellates, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and heterotrophic bacteria were characterised in order to gain some indication of the food resources for ciliates. The abundance of ciliates in the waters of the three protectorates were found to vary according to an annual cycle, with the highest ciliate numbers of 2.5x104 cells L-1 occurring in the spring and the lowest numbers of 0.2x104 cells L-1 occurring in the summer. Abundances were at times eight-fold higher than those found in comparable studies of nutrient-poor pelagic systems and approached those observed in coastal waters and in more productive open ocean systems. Nanoflagellates that could provide a food supply for the filter feeding ciliates were especially numerous during spring, and it is confirmed that the production of bacteria is an important component at the base of this food chain in the waters of the three marine protectorates. The study explored these food chain relationships by calculating the potential rate of capture of prey and the clearance rate of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and filter feeding ciliates. The study also compared the filtration rates of heterotrophic flagellates and of filter feeding ciliates.
 
Ontogeny of Sensorimotor Reflexes in Albino Mice, Albino Rats and Black-Hooded Rats
Ahmed A. Allam1,2 * and Rasha E. Abo-Eleneen2
 
Abstract
The present investigation aimed to show the differences in the development of sensorimotor reflexes and their relationship to the structural changes in spinal cord, cerebellum and cerebral cortex in three rodent species. The three species are albino rats (A-rat), black-hooded rats (B-rat) and albino mice. The reflexes were examined postnatal from day (D1) till reflex maturation, and the structural changes were done at D7, D14, and D21. The reflexes examined included: fore-limb/hind-limb grasp, surface body righting, fore-limb hopping, chin tactile placing, visual placing and body righting in the air. The postnatal development of these reflexes were found to be different in these rodent species. At D7, differentiation of neurons was observed in the spinal cord while in cerebellum and cerebrum the neurons were found to be undifferentiated. At D14 and D21, the differentiated neurons were observed spinal cord, cerebellum and cerebrum. The results suggest that the expression of sensorimotor reflexes depend on the state of the neurons and muscles that mediate these reflexes. The result of this study show that the development of these reflexes is not species specific rather may be specific to the animal strain.
Key words: sensorimotor reflexes; spinal cord; cerebrum; cerebellum; rodent newborns
 
Vitamin C supplementation reconstitutes polyfunctional T cells
in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Gamal Badr • Samir Bashandy • Hossam Ebaid •
Mohamed Mohany • Douaa Sayed
Received: 14 July 2010 / Accepted: 17 January 2011
Ó Springer-Verlag 2011
Abstract
Background Studies have demonstrated that vitamin C supplementation enhances the immune system, preventsDNA damage, and decreases the risk of a wide range of diseases. Other study reported that leukocyte vitaminClevel was lowin diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic controls. Aim of the work To study the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress, blood lipid profile, and T-cell responsiveness during streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes mellitus.
Methods Thirty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly split into three groups. The first served as a control group (n = 10) in which rats were injected with the vehicle alone. The second (n = 10) and the third groups (n = 10) were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of single doses of STZ (60 mg/kg body weight). The third group was supplemented with vitamin C (100 mg/kg body weight) for 2 months. Results T lymphocytes from the diabetic rats were found to be in a stunned state, with a decreased surfaceexpression of the CD28 costimulatory molecule, low levels of phosphorylated AKT, altered actin polymerization, diminished proliferation and cytokine production, and, eventually, a marked decrease in abundance in the periphery. Vitamin C was found to significantly decrease the elevated levels of blood hydroperoxide, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in diabetic rats. Furthermore, it was found to restore CD28 expression, AKT phosphorylation, actin olymerization, and polyfunctional T cells (IFN-c- and IL-2-producing cells that exhibit a high proliferation capacity). Conclusion Vitamin C treatment restores and reconstitutes polyfunctional, long-lived T cells in diabetic rats.
 
Identification of the alkaloidal venoms of some Monomorium ants
of Saudi Arabia
Ashraf M.A. Mashaly a,1, Ashraf M. Ahmeda,1, Mohammed S. Al-Khalifa a, Túlio M. Nunes b,
E. David Morgan b,*
a Department of Zoology, College of Sciences, King Saud University, PO. Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
b Lennard-Jones Laboratory, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, England AT5 5BG, United Kingdom
 
A b s t r a c t
The major volatile compounds in the poison glands of two Monomorium ant species from Saudi Arabia have been identified. Monomorium niloticum and Monomorium najrane both contain mixtures of alkyl- and alkenyl-pyrrolidines and -pyrrolines in their venom glands but no Dufour gland volatile compounds were detected. Monomoriummayri showed neither Dufour gland compounds nor venom components detectable by gas chromatography.
 
Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry
Vol. 92, No. 10, November 2010, 1865–1878
Effects of dietary copper exposure on accumulation, growth,
and hematological parameters in Cyprinus carpio
A.S. Al-Akela, H.F. Alkahem Al-Balawia, F. Al-Misneda,
Shahid Mahboobab*, Z. Ahmada and E.M. Sulimana
aDepartment of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455,
Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; bGC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
(Received 4 April 2010; final version received 14 April 2010)
The influence of dietary copper (Cu) exposure on accumulation, growth, and hematological parameters was investigated in Cyprinus carpio after sub-chronic ingestion of 0, 250, 500, 750 or 1000mg kg_1 for 60 days. The profile of Cu accumulation among tissues in C. carpio was dependent on the exposure period and Cu concentration. Liver of C. carpio was the predominant storage tissue and the order of Cu accumulation in tissues was liver4intestine4 gill4kidney4muscle. Cu concentration at 4125mg kg_1 reduced growth rate, and was inversely related to growth. The RNA:DNA ratios were not affected by exposure and there was no correlation between growth rate and RNA:DNA ratio in liver and muscle. There were no significant effects of exposure on blood parameters except for magnesium. Cu exposure time and dose increased the serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity levels.
Keywords: Cprinus carpio; dietary copper; growth; RNA:DNA ratio; hematological
Parameters
 
The hepatoprotective effect of b-carotene against cadmium toxicity in rats
 
(1)Alhazza, I.M and (2)Bashandy, S.A
 
(1)Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, ,Saudi Arabia.
(2)Department of Pharmacology, National Research Center, Egypt.
 
Abstract 
          Cadmium (Cd) is a well known carcinogen and hepatotoxic. Lipid peroxidation is involved in cadmium related toxicity. b–carotene is effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effect of b–carotene against cadmium (Cd) induced hepatotoxicity. Male albino rats were used in the present experiments and divided into three groups. First group served as control, second group injected with Cd Cl2 (s.c) at dose level of 2.5 mg / kg Bwt and third group injected intramuscularly with B–carotene (10 mg/kg Bwt) and CdCl2 (s.c.). The injections were 3 times weekly for 6 weeks. Results obtained showed that CdCl2 significantly (P<0.01) elevated blood hydroperoxide, AST (Aspartate amino transferase), ALT (Alanine amino transferase), ALP(Alkaline Phosphatase), cholesterol and hepatic cadmium levels. The results demonstrated the beneficial influences of b-Carotene in reducing the harmful effects of CdCl2. 
 
Enhancing the humoral and melanization responses of Aedes aegypti mosquito: a step towards the utilization of immune system against dengue fever
 
A. M. Ahmed*, E. M. Al-Olayan and M. A. Amoudy
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, University of King Saud, Riyadh, KSA

Abstract: Great efforts are currently being done to utilize the immune system of mosquito vectors in the battle against the different mosquito-borne parasitic and viral diseases. Based on this control strategy, the current study has been conducted to induce and enhance the most effective immune responses, the humoral and melanization responses, in the dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti against live bacteria and non-biological agents at 24h post-treatments. The humoral activity againstBacillus subtilis andEscherichia coli was investigated after thoracic injection of the same bacteria or the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mosquitoes using the inhibition zone assay. Melanization response was tested against the thoracic inoculated Sephadex® beads, positively charged CM A-25, negatively charged CM G-25 and neutral CM C-25, and inert glass beads. These immune responses were then enhanced via the oral administration of 0.3% thymoquinone (Thq), the main active ingredient of the black seeds, Nigella sativa, to mosquitoes. Data demonstrated that, on one hand mosquitoes exhibited strong humoral activity against the injected bacteria as well as against the well-known immune sensitive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. Moreover, melanization response was strong against differently charged Sephadex® beads, but not against the inert glass beads. On the other hand, significant increases in the humoral anti-bacterial lyses activity and anti-beads melanization response (up to 6 folds in some cases) was clearly shown when mosquitoes were maintained on 0.3% Thq-glucose mixture (in 10% glucose). Therefore, these data may indicate that both humoral antimicrobial activity and melanization response could be enhanced to be more effective against disease-organisms transmitted by mosquitoes. Thus, this study suggests a possible immuno-control strategy in the battle against mosquito-born diseases which, in fact, will be tested against dengue viruses in the future studies.
Key wards:Aedes aegypti, dengue, immuno-control, melanization, humoral activity
 
تأثير البكتريا سالبة الجرام،E Coli،  والتعرض للبرودة علي انتاج الجذور الحرة، ونشاط الإنزيم المزيل لحامض اللبنيك والجوتاثيون بيروكسيديز في رئة الجرد
 
السعيد المرسي بسيوني حفور
 قسم علم الحيوان، كلية العلوم، ص. ب. 2455، حامعة الملك سعود – الرياض 11451
ahaffor@msn.com
 
هدفت هذه الدراسة الي الكشف عن تأثير البكتريا سالبة الجرام والتعرض للبرودة علي إنتاج الجذور الحرة، ونشاط الإنزيم المزيل لحامض اللبنيك وإنزيم الجلوتاثيون بيروكسيديز في رئة الجرد.  تم تعيين أربع وعشرون جرذا ذكرا، متساوية العمر والوزن، والتي وزعت عشوائيا علي اربع مجموعات؛ المجموعة الضابطة(C)، والبكتريا (B)، والحرارة المنخفضة (T)والبكتريا + حرارة منخفضة (BT).  تعرضت حيوانات المجموعة   Tالي حرارة بيئية 10 -12 ˚،  لمدة ثلاثة أيام متتالية.  ولقد حقنت حيوانات المجموعة Bبالبكتريا سالبة الجرام (500 ميكروجرام/كج، IP)،    وقبل مرورالخمس ساعات الأخيرة من فترة التعرض للبرودة.  مقارنة بالمجموعة الضابطة ازداد معدل انتاج الجذور الحرة زيادة ذات دلالة إحصائية (p<0.05) في المجموعات التجربية، مؤشرا الي زيادة في تراكم وسائط الأكسجين المتفاعلة.  ازداد نشاط الإنزيم المزيل لحامض اللبنيك زيادة ذات دلالة احصائية (p<0.05) في مجموعتي T و BT، وذلك أظهر أن الإصابة البكتيرية والتعرض للبرودة قد أدت الي الإصابة الخلوية في الرئتين، وإن التأثير المرادف لكلا البكتريا والبرودة كان أكثر حدة علي نشاط الإنزيم، مقارنة بالتأثير المنفرد لأي من البكتريا أو البرودة علي حدة.  مقارنة بالمجموعة الضابطة، إزداد نشاط إنزيم الجلوتاثيون بيروكسيديز زيادة ذات دلالة احصائية (p<0.05) في كل من مجموعتي Bو BT.   تعتبرنتائج هذه الدراسة أول تقرير يوضح أن الجذور الحرة تعتبروسيط للإصابة البكترية وأضرار التعرض للبرودة الزائدة.

الكشف الجزيئي لسمية المعادن الثقيلة على نبات اللوبيا
تمثل اللوبيا Phaseolus Vulgarisمصدر غذائي كبير لملايين من الناس و هي ثاني أهم المحاصيل البقولية بعد فول الصويا.لتقييم التلوث البيئي في علم البيئة (النبات).
تعتبر المعادن الثقيلة سامة للنباتات فهي تحدث أكسدة للبروتينات و الدهون المكونة للأغشية إضافة إلى بعض التغيرات في جينات الحمض النووي DNA.لقد قمنا بدراسة سمية الالمنيوم و النيكل بشكل انفرادي على نبتة اللوبيا Phaseolus Vulgarisو قد أظهرت النتائج ا ن طول الجذور و السيقان قد تأثرت نتيجة هذه المعادن وقد تبين ذلك بعد ثلاثة أيام من عملية الإنبات,لكن نسبة الإنبات لم تتأثر بهذه المعاملات. كما كان لها تأثيرات كبيرة على مساحة الورقة, الوزن الجاف والرطب للنبات. ونتيجة لتأثير هذه المعادن على نمو النبات ولتقييم مدى سميتها على الجينات استعملت واسمات RAPD  للمقارنة بين النباتات التي خضعت لتأثير هذه المعادن مع أخرى لم تخضع لتأثير. ومن بين 10 واسمات استعملت فان 5 منها أعطت نفس النتائج لكل العينات و 4 واسمات أظهرت نتائج في عينات دون أخرى , أما بقية الواسمات وهي واحدة فلم تحدث تضخيم للجينات في كل العينات.و بالتالي فان هذه التقنية ذات جدوى لتقييم السمية الناتجة من المعادن الثقيلة.ومن خلال دراستنا يمكن الكشف عن المخاطر البيئية للمعادن الثقيلة وتأثيرها على ثبات و تعدد أشكال الحمض النووي لنبتة اللوبيا .Phaseolus Vulgaris
 
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, Vol. 38, No. 1, April2008

J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 38 (1), 2008: 273 - 280
 
PREVALENCE OF CESTODE PARASITES IN SHEEP SLAUGHTERED IN RIYADH CITY, SAUDI ARABIA
By
Saleh Abdel-Rahman Al-Qureishy
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University
P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abstract
     Prevalence of tapeworm infections among sheep slaughtered in Riyadh City were studied from February 2007 to March 2008. A total of 76 out of 3300 sheep were infected with adult cestodes (2.3%). The highest infection rate was in autumn (8.1%), and the lowest one was in summer (1.7%). The cestodes were identified as Moniezia expansa (96.3%) and M. deuticulata (3.7%). Concerning seasonal dynamics of the worms, the highest number was recorded in October and Novem-ber (13.5 & 8.3%), while the lowest one was in June and July (0.7 & 1.3%). The examination of muscle samples from rump, shoulders and thigh of 1001 sheep revealed Cysticercus ovis in 120 sheep (12%). The highest infection rate (17.5%) was in autumn, and the lowest one (6.2%) was in summer.
Keywords:sheep,Moniezia expansa,M. deuticulata,Cysticercus ovis, Riy-adh,Saudi Arabia
 
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 14 (1) 69-74, June 2007
ISSN 1319-562X
The Official Journal of the Saudi Biological Society
htt:www.saudibiosoc.com
 
Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Olive Oil in Normal and Diabetic Male Rats*
I. M. Alhazza
Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The lipid hydroperoxide level and lipid profile were investigated in plasma of normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with olive oil for six weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in the levels of hydroperoxide, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The administration of olive oil showed a better profile in the lipid as well as decreases in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides either in normal or diabetic rats. The results are discussed according to antioxidant property of olive oil.
Key Words: Olive oil, Diabetes, Lipid profile, Antioxidant.

*Corresponding Author: amahmedkeele@yahoo.co.uk